How to Install MariaDB 10 on CentOS 7 CPanel Server

MariaDB is a enhanced open source and drop-in replacement for MySQL. It is developed by MariaDB community and available under the terms of the GPL v2 license. Software Security is the main focus for the MariaDB developers. They maintain its own set of security patches for each MariaDB releases. When any critical security issues are discovered, the developers introduces a new release of MariaDB to get the fix out as soon as possible.

MariaDB is always up-to-date with the latest MySQL releases. It is highly compatible and works exactly like the MySQL. Almost all commands, data, table definition files, Client APIs, protocols, interfaces, structures, filenames, binaries, ports, database storage locations etc are same as the MySQL. It isn't even needed to convert databases to switch to MariaDB.

Advantages of MariaDB

  • Truly Open source
  • More quicker and transparent security releases
  • Highly Compatible with MySQL
  • Improved Performance
  • More storage engines compared to MySQL

In this article, I provides guidelines on how to upgrade MySQL 5.5 to the latest MariaDB on a CentOS 7 CPanel server. Let's walk through the Pre-installation steps.


1. Stop current MySQL Service

root@server1 [/var/# mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 5859
Server version: 5.5.47-cll MySQL Community Server (GPL)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

root@server1 [~]# systemctl stop mysql
root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
● mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:00:02 UTC; 1min 31s ago
Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)

Jan 31 10:00:02 systemd[1]: Started MySQL Server.
Jan 31 10:00:02 systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Server...
Jan 31 10:00:02 systemd[1]: mysql.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=203/EXEC
Jan 31 10:00:02 systemd[1]: Unit mysql.service entered failed state.
Jan 31 10:00:02 systemd[1]: mysql.service failed.

2. Move all configuration files and databases prior to the upgrade

Move the DB storage path and MySQL configuration files

root@server1 [~]# cp -Rf /var/lib/mysql /var/lib/mysql-old

root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# cat /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld] default-storage-engine=MyISAM

root@server1 [~]#mv /etc/my.cnf /etc/my.cnf-old

3. Remove and uninstall all MySQL rpms from the server

Run the following commands to disable the MySQL RPM targets. By running this commands, cPanel will no longer handle MySQL updates, and mark these rpm.versions as uninstalled on the system.

/scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL50 uninstalled
/scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL51 uninstalled
/scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL55 uninstalled
/scripts/update_local_rpm_versions --edit target_settings.MySQL56 uninstalled

Now run the this command:

/scripts/check_cpanel_rpms --fix --targets=MySQL50,MySQL51,MySQL55,MySQL56 to remove all existing MySQL rpms on the server and leave a clean environment for MariaDB installation. Please see its output below:

root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# /scripts/check_cpanel_rpms --fix --targets=MySQL50,MySQL51,MySQL55,MySQL56
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Problems were detected with cPanel-provided files which are RPM controlled.
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] If you did not make these changes intentionally, you can correct them by running:
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] > /usr/local/cpanel/scripts/check_cpanel_rpms --fix
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] [2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] The following RPMs are unneeded on your system and should be uninstalled:
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-client-5.5.47-1.cp1148
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-devel-5.5.47-1.cp1148
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-server-5.5.47-1.cp1148
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-shared-5.5.47-1.cp1148
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] MySQL55-test-5.5.47-1.cp1148
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] compat-MySQL50-shared-5.0.96-4.cp1136
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] compat-MySQL51-shared-5.1.73-1.cp1150
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Removing 0 broken rpms:
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] rpm: no packages given for erase
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] No new RPMS needed for install
[2016-01-31 09:53:59 +0000] Disabling service monitoring.
[2016-01-31 09:54:01 +0000] Uninstalling unneeded rpms: MySQL55-test MySQL55-server MySQL55-client compat-MySQL51-shared compat-MySQL50-shared MySQL55-shared MySQL55-devel
[2016-01-31 09:54:04 +0000] Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/
[2016-01-31 09:54:04 +0000] Restoring service monitoring.

With these steps, we've uninstalled existing MySQL RPMs, marked targets to prevent further MySQL updates and made the server ready and clean for the MariaDB installation.

To startup with the installation, we need to create a yum repository for MariaDB depending on the MariaDB & CentOS versions. This is how I did it!

Installation procedures:

Step 1: Creating a YUM repository.

root@server1 [~]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo
[mariadb] name = MariaDB
baseurl =
root@server1 [/etc/yum.repos.d]# cat /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB.repo
[mariadb] name = MariaDB
baseurl =

Step 2: Open the /etc/yum.conf and modify the exclude line as below:

Remove this line exclude=courier* dovecot* exim* filesystem httpd* mod_ssl* mydns* mysql* nsd* php* proftpd* pure-ftpd* spamassassin* squirrelmail*

And replace with this line exclude=courier* dovecot* exim* filesystem httpd* mod_ssl* mydns* nsd* proftpd* pure-ftpd* spamassassin* squirrelmail*

We need to make sure, we've removed the MySQL and PHP from the exclude list.

Step 3: Run the following command to install MariaDB and related packages.

yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client MariaDB-devel php-mysql

root@server1 [~]#yum install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client MariaDB-devel php-mysql

Dependencies Resolved

Package Arch Version Repository Size
MariaDB-client x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 10 M
MariaDB-devel x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 6.3 M
MariaDB-server x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 55 M
php-mysql x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 99 k
Installing for dependencies:
MariaDB-common x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 43 k
MariaDB-shared x86_64 10.0.23-1.el7.centos mariadb 1.2 M
libzip x86_64 0.10.1-8.el7 base 48 k
php-common x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 563 k
php-pdo x86_64 5.4.16-36.el7_1 base 97 k

Transaction Summary
Install 4 Packages (+5 Dependent package)

Step 4: Restart and make sure the MySQL service is up.

root@server1 [~]# systemctl start mysql
root@server1 [~]#
root@server1 [~]#
root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
● mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
Active: active (exited) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:01:46 UTC; 3s ago
Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
Process: 23717 ExecStart=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)

Jan 31 10:01:46 systemd[1]: Starting LSB: start and stop MySQL...
Jan 31 10:01:46 mysql[23717]: Starting MySQL SUCCESS!
Jan 31 10:01:46 systemd[1]: Started LSB: start and stop MySQL.

Step 5 : Run mysql_upgrade command

It will examine all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current installed version and upgrades the system tables if necessary to take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have added with the current version.

root@server1 [~]# mysql_upgrade
MySQL upgrade detected
Phase 1/6: Checking and upgrading mysql database
Processing databases
mysql.columns_priv OK
mysql.db OK
mysql.event OK
mysql.func OK
mysql.help_category OK
mysql.help_keyword OK
mysql.help_relation OK
mysql.help_topic OK OK
mysql.ndb_binlog_index OK
mysql.plugin OK
mysql.proc OK
mysql.procs_priv OK
mysql.proxies_priv OK
mysql.servers OK
mysql.tables_priv OK
mysql.time_zone OK
mysql.time_zone_leap_second OK
mysql.time_zone_name OK
mysql.time_zone_transition OK
mysql.time_zone_transition_type OK
mysql.user OK
Phase 2/6: Fixing views from mysql
Phase 3/6: Running 'mysql_fix_privilege_tables'
Phase 4/6: Fixing table and database names
Phase 5/6: Checking and upgrading tables
Processing databases
cphulkd.auths OK
cphulkd.blacklist OK
cphulkd.brutes OK
cphulkd.good_logins OK
cphulkd.ip_lists OK
cphulkd.known_netblocks OK
cphulkd.login_track OK
cphulkd.logins OK OK
cphulkd.whitelist OK
eximstats.defers OK
eximstats.failures OK
eximstats.sends OK
eximstats.smtp OK
leechprotect.hits OK
modsec.hits OK
roundcube.cache OK
roundcube.cache_index OK
roundcube.cache_messages OK
roundcube.cache_shared OK
roundcube.cache_thread OK
roundcube.contactgroupmembers OK
roundcube.contactgroups OK
roundcube.contacts OK
roundcube.cp_schema_version OK
roundcube.dictionary OK
roundcube.identities OK
roundcube.searches OK
roundcube.session OK
roundcube.system OK
roundcube.users OK
saheetha_test.authors OK
whmxfer.sessions OK
Phase 6/6: Running 'FLUSH PRIVILEGES'

Step 6 : Restart the MySQL service once again to ensure everything works perfect.

root@server1 [~]# systemctl restart mysql
root@server1 [~]#
root@server1 [~]# systemctl status mysql
● mysql.service - LSB: start and stop MySQL
Loaded: loaded (/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql)
Active: active (running) since Sun 2016-01-31 10:04:11 UTC; 9s ago
Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8)
Process: 23831 ExecStop=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
Process: 23854 ExecStart=/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
Main PID: 23430 (code=exited, status=203/EXEC)
CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service
├─23861 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/
└─23933 /usr/sbin/mysqld --basedir=/usr --datadir=/var/lib/mysql --plugin-dir=/usr/lib64/mysql/plugin --user=mysql --log-error=/v...

Jan 31 10:04:10 systemd[1]: Starting LSB: start and stop MySQL...
Jan 31 10:04:11 mysql[23854]: Starting MySQL. SUCCESS!
Jan 31 10:04:11 systemd[1]: Started LSB: start and stop MySQL.

Step 7: Run EasyApache to rebuild Apache/PHP with MariaDB and ensure all PHP modules remains intact.

root@server1 [~]#/scripts/easyapache --build

****IMPORTANT *****
If you forget to rebuild Apache/PHP after the MariaDB installation, it will report the library error as below:

root@server1 [/etc/my.cnf.d]# php -v
php: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

Step 8: Now verify the installation and databases.

root@server1 [/var/lib/mysql]# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 15
Server version: 10.0.23-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> show storage engines;
| Engine | Support | Comment | Transactions | XA | Savepoints |
| CSV | YES | CSV storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
| MRG_MyISAM | YES | Collection of identical MyISAM tables | NO | NO | NO |
| MEMORY | YES | Hash based, stored in memory, useful for temporary tables | NO | NO | NO |
| BLACKHOLE | YES | /dev/null storage engine (anything you write to it disappears) | NO | NO | NO |
| MyISAM | YES | MyISAM storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
| InnoDB | DEFAULT | Percona-XtraDB, Supports transactions, row-level locking, and foreign keys | YES | YES | YES |
| ARCHIVE | YES | Archive storage engine | NO | NO | NO |
| FEDERATED | YES | FederatedX pluggable storage engine | YES | NO | YES |
| PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA | YES | Performance Schema | NO | NO | NO |
| Aria | YES | Crash-safe tables with MyISAM heritage | NO | NO | NO |
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)

That's all :). Now we're all set to go with MariaDB with its improved and efficient features. Hope you enjoyed reading this documentation. I would recommend your valuable suggestions and feedback on this!

About Saheetha Shameer

I'm working as a Senior System Administrator. I'm a quick learner and have a slight inclination towards following the current and emerging trends in the industry. My hobbies include hearing music, playing strategy computer games, reading and gardening. I also have a high passion for experimenting with various culinary delights :-)

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