Date on the operating system may only be considered as a timepiece. Especially on console mode, we do generally not see date as an important thing. But for Administrator, this assumption is false. Do you know that a wrong date and time can make you can’t compile an application?
Because date and time are important, this is may be the reason why Network Time Protocol is developed. Let’s start to see what date command you can use on Linux terminal.
1) Display system date
To display your system date, just type
Thu Dec 5 22:55:41 WIB 2013
2) Formatting Date
Date come with many formats. If you are unhappy with default format you can change it. You may think “Why I need to change the format? A default output is enough for me”.
Yes. It is true. But when you do programming, default output may not meet the user need. So here’s some custom outputs.
Output date and time in RFC 2822 format
$ date -R
Thu, 05 Dec 2013 23:40:53 +0700
RFC 2822 has a format like this : day, date-month-year, hours:minutes:second timezone
Timezone +0700 is same with GMT +7
By default date is using the timezone which defined in /etc/localtime. Valid timezones data are defined in /usr/share/timezones
Print or set Coordinated Universal Time
From Wikipedia, UTC means
The primary standard which the world regulates clocks and time. It is one several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time.
To display your date and time with UTC format, use -u parameter
$ date -u
Thu Dec 5 16:45:58:UTC 2013
3) Using formatting options
To custom your date format, use a plus sign (+)
$ date +”Day : %d Month : %m Year : %Y”
Day: 05 Month: 12 Year: 2013
$ date +%D
%D format follows Year/Month/Day format.
You can also put the day name if you want. Here are some examples :
$ date +”%a %b %d %y”
Fri 06 Dec 2013
$ date +”%A %B %d %Y”
Friday December 06 2013
$ date +”%A %B %d %Y %T”
Friday December 06 2013 00:30:37
$ date +”%A %B-%d-%Y %c”
Friday December-06-2013 12:30:37 AM WIB
There are still a lot of format options available. Just type
$ date --help
$ man date
To show date command syntax and parameters.
So basically, date command will interpret all percent sign (%) and print anything inside a quotes sign (“ “)
4) Set system date and time
Generally, you want your system date and time is set automatically. If for some reason you have to change it manually, we can use this command :
# date --set=”20140125 09:17:00”
It will set your current date and time of your system into January 25, 2014 and 09:17:00 AM. Please note, that you must have root privilege to do this. Otherwise, you will have an error message like this :
date: cannot set date: Operation not permitted
Sat Jan 25 09:17:00 WIB 2014
5) Reset your time back
If you need to reset your system date and time back to the original, you can do this trick.
Fri 06 Dec 2013 03:44:10 AM WIB -0.314082 seconds
And set your system date and time to the output of hwclock command.
6) Using date command on a script
Remember when I said before about why you may need to change the date output? One of the answer may be because you do programming. Let’s see an example on bash script.
$ vi display.date
DATETIME=$(date +”DATE: %a %b-%d-%Y TIME: %T WEEK NUMBER: %W”)
Save it and run it using :
DATE : Fri Dec-06-2013 TIME: 03:08:19 WEEK Number :40
If you find error permission denied error message, type :
$ chmod 755 display.date
7) Using date on a backup procedure
Another example is when you are using date on a backup procedure.
$ date +%F
$ tar zcfv /daily_backup/backup-`date +%F`.tar.gz /home/pungki/Documents
It will compress folder /home/pungki/Documents into a file with name backup-2013-12-06.tar.gz which located in /daily_backup folder.
As usual, to have more detail in using date command, please visit date manual page by typing 'man date' in your console.