Find How to Check Linux Version Command Line

How to find Linux OS name and version? This article we explain all commands to get os name, its version, kernel version and CPU architecture of the hardware.

  1. Commands to Check OS Version
  2. Commands to find CPU architecture
  3. Command to check Linux OS type (32 or 64 bits)

1) Commands to Check OS Version

Open below file using any of your favorite editors

/etc/os-release

This file will display OS name.

Sample Output

# cat /etc/os-release
NAME="CentOS Linux"
VERSION="7 (Core)"
ID="centos"
ID_LIKE="rhel fedora"
VERSION_ID="7"
PRETTY_NAME="CentOS Linux 7 (Core)"
ANSI_COLOR="0;31"
CPE_NAME="cpe:/o:centos:centos:7"
HOME_URL="https://www.centos.org/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.centos.org/"

CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT="CentOS-7"
CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT_VERSION="7"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT="centos"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT_VERSION="7"

hostnamectl command

hostnamectl command introduced with systemd which has multiple functions like display hostname and change system name.

# hostnamectl
   Static hostname: linoxide
         Icon name: computer-vm
           Chassis: vm
        Machine ID: cb018d6767ca4c8983df25647a8794b0
           Boot ID: ac9d219352a94cdba47494ebd1f42f5c
    Virtualization: kvm
  Operating System: CentOS Linux 7 (Core)
       CPE OS Name: cpe:/o:centos:centos:7
            Kernel: Linux 3.10.0-862.11.6.el7.x86_64
      Architecture: x86-64

/proc/version file

Version file inside /proc folder also helps to find OS name and kernel version

# cat /proc/version
Linux version 3.10.0-862.11.6.el7.x86_64 ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-28) (GCC) ) #1 SMP Tue Aug 14 21:49:04 UTC 2018
#

lsb_release -a

lsb_release displays Linux Standard Base information about your specific Linux distribution. If you get "command not found" and then you need to install lsb-core package.

# lsb_release -a
No LSB modules are available.
Distributor ID: Ubuntu
Description: Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS
Release: 18.04
Codename: bionic

commands check linux os version

2) Commands to find CPU architecture

There are some command which helps you to know if your CPU is 32 bits or 64 bits

Using uname command

To display processor type uname -p command

$ uname -p
x86_64

If the command doesn't work, you can use uname -a command which gives more information

Using "arch" command

arch command will display the machine architecture.

$ arch
x86_64

lscpu command

You can display CPU architecture information with lscpu command

$ lscpu
Architecture: x86_64
CPU op-mode(s): 32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order: Little Endian
CPU(s): 4
On-line CPU(s) list: 0-3

The result has been truncated. You can see that the output shows the cpu compatibility mode (32 and 64 bits)

lshw command

You can us lshw -c command to filter CPU information on the hardware description which will appear

$ lshw -c cpu
 *-cpu 
 description: CPU
 product: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-3230M CPU @ 2.60GHz
 vendor: Intel Corp.
 physical id: 33
 bus info: [email protected]
 version: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-3230M CPU @ 2.60GHz
 serial: To Be Filled By O.E.M.
 slot: U3E1
 size: 2973MHz
 capacity: 3200MHz
 width: 64 bits

You can the last line width: 64 bits which indicate the type of processor. This command for the moment doesn't work on Red Hat based system but only Debian based system.

/proc/cpuinfo

You can list /proc/cpuinfo content file to check whether you processor is 32 bits or 64 bits. If you want to see if your processor is 64-bit then look for lm (means Long Mode) in the flags listed in /proc/cpuinfo.

$ grep -o -w 'lm' /proc/cpuinfo | sort -u
lm

3) Command to check Linux OS type (32 or 64 bits)

How to check OS installed is supporting 64 or 32 bit? Below command helps to determine that.

getconf command

You can use the getconf command to know whether the kernel is of 32 bit or 64 bit.

$ getconf LONG_BIT
64

For 32 bits system, you will have 32 instead of 64 

uname -a

uname command has some options which give a special information and we can have some more information as the OS type with -a option of the command

$ uname -a
Linux centos-01 3.10.0-514.16.1.el7.x86_64 #1 SMP Wed Apr 12 15:04:24 UTC 2017 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

In above output x86_64 GNU/Linux indicates that you have a 64bit Linux kernel running. If you see i386/i486/i586/i686 it is a 32 bit kernel.

dpkg command

When you have a 64 bits OS installed, it means that your CPU is 64 bits too and the packages installed will correspond to the same architecture. So we can see the installed package architecture on our system to determine our OS type

$ dpkg --print-architecture 
amd64

You can understand that the command can be only used on Debian based systems.

Check library files

The libraries installed on an OS help to determinate the type of this one. When you have a 64 bits OS, you will have 64 bits libraries installed too.

$ ls -la / | grep lib
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Feb 21 13:38 lib -> usr/lib
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 9 Feb 21 13:38 lib64 -> usr/lib64

Using yum

You can use yum info to have some information about available packages. It will also print architecture of OS which is compatible with the package

$ yum info nginx | grep -i arch
Arch : x86_64

Because our OS is 64 bits, the package is compatible with 64 bits too

Echo variable

It is possible to have the version of your operating system by displaying the OS type

$ echo $HOSTTYPE
x86_64
$ echo $MACHTYPE
x86_64-redhat-linux-gnu

Query file type

file command determines file type. The result on the output contains your system architecture

$ file /lib/systemd/systemd
/lib/systemd/systemd: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for GNU/Linux 2.6.32, BuildID[sha1]=8019aadd1f0962539e2f746b044873956ce2e32c, stripped

You can see ELF 64-bit, X86-64

For non-systemd OS, you can use

$ file /sbin/init

Are you aware of any more commands? Please provide your suggestions and info on the comments section.

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Bobbin Zachariah 10:22 am

About Bobbin Zachariah

Founder of LinOxide, passionate lover of Linux and technology writer. Started his career in Linux / Opensource from 2000. Love traveling, blogging and listening music. Reach Bobbin Zachariah about me page and google plus page.

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